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For all of you who join me today, the article entitled Who Authored
the Qur'an was written by Sabeel Ahmed. The article was brought
you by the site: www.ummah.net (Inter Islamic Net) It raises the very
popular question: who was the author of the Qur'an. There are
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May Allah be with you every step of the way...
Who Authored The Qur'an ?
(by: Sabeel Ahmed)
Possible Authorship of the Qur'an, thus, can be from the following
- - The Christian Sources,
- - The Jewish Sources,
- - Salman Farsi (former Zoroastrian turned Muslim),
- - Muhammad (peace be upon him),
- - Allah, the One True God of the Universe.
The Christian Sources?
Concerning the presence of Arabic Gospels in the pre-Islamic period,
Sidney Griffith, after extensive study, concludes:
"All one can say about the possibility of a pre-Islamic, Christian
version of the Gospel in Arabic is that no sure sign of it's actual
existence has yet emerged". Sidney H. Griffith, "The Gospel In
Arabic: An Enquiry Into Its Appearance In the First Abbasid Century",
Oriens Christianus, vol. 69, p. 166.
The New Catholic Encyclopaedia says that during the time of the
"The Hijaz [Arabian Peninsula] had not been touched by Christian
Hence organisation of the Christian church was neither to be expected
nor found". New Catholic Encyclopaedia (Washington D. C.: The
Catholic University of America, 1967) vol. 1, pp. 721-22.
"The oldest known, dated manuscripts containing Arabic translations
of the New Testament are in the collections of St. Catherine's
monastery at Mt. Sinai... dating from 867 AD." Sidney H.
Griffith, "The Gospel In Arabic: An Enquiry Into Its Appearance In
the First Abbasid Century", Oriens Christianus, vol. 69, pp. 131-2.
This is more than two centuries after the Prophet passed away!
Furthermore, the teachings in the Qur'an differ considerably from
those present in the New Testament. Qur'an denies the crucifixion of
Jesus (Qur'an, 4:157) which the New Testament affirms. Qur'an negates
that Jesus is the Son of God (Qur'an, 9:30) which the New Testament
holds dear (John, 3:16). The purely monotheistic concept of God in
the Qur'an is different from the Trinitarian concept of God
interpreted by Christians from the Bible. Thus Christianity cannot be
a source of the Qur'an.
The first translations of the Hebrew Bible in Arabic appeared after
the advent of Islam. In fact, the oldest dated manuscript of the Old
Testament in Arabic dates from first half of the ninth century.
(British Museum Arab.1475). This is again two centuries after the
death of Prophet Muhammed.
Furthermore, the narrations mentioned in the Old Testament has major
differences from those found in the Qur'an. Example: Old Testament
mentions a universal flood during the time of Prophet Noah (Genesis,
Chap. 7). Qur'an also mentions the flood but never mentions that it
was of a universal nature but only affecting the rejecters of Prophet
Noah's message of Monotheism, thus a 'local' flood. Qur'anic
narration is now proved to be scientifically accurate and the
Biblical view has no scientific basis.
"According to Woolley (Geologist) the disaster engulfed an area north-
west of the Persian Gulf amounting to 400 miles long and 100 miles
wide, looking at the map we should call it today 'a local
occurrence'" ...at any rate a flood of the unimaginable extent
described in the Bible, still remains 'archaeologically not
demonstrated'". Werner Keller, The Bible as History, 2nd. ed. (New
York: William Morrow, 1980), pp. 43-9.
Thus Jewish influence cannot account for the Qur'an's authorship.
Salman Farsi as a Source?
Salman Farsi accepted Islam AFTER the Prophet migrated to Medinah
from Mecca. (The Shorter Encyclopaedia of Islam, H. A. R. Gibb, 4th.
impression, 1995, p. 500; and The Concise Encyclopaedia of Islam, ed.
Cyril Glasse (London: Stacey International, 1989), p. 350)
"The Qur'an contains 114 chapters (Suras). 85 of these have been
revealed in Mecca and 29 in Medinah". (B. Zarkashi, al-Burhan
fi 'Ulum al-Qur'an, (Cairo, 1958), vol. 1, p. 193).
Therefore about two thirds of the Qur'an have already been revealed
before Salman Farsi even met Prophet Muhammad!. Furthermore, the
Qur'an's literary style is so sublime that even born Arab linguists
who have tried over the years to imitate it have not been successful -
to say nothing of a Persian or any other Zoroastrian. Thus Salman
Farsi cannot be one of the sources of the Qur'an.
Mohammed (peace be upon him) Wrote It?
First of all Prophet Muhammad was an unlettered person. He does not
even know how to read or write his own name! Also, Prophet Mohammed's
personal statements are recorded in what we call as 'Hadith'. If we
look at the Arabic style of the Hadith, and compare it with the style
of the Qur'an, we can clearly see that they are two DIFFERENT, and
DISTINGUISHABLE Arabic styles.
Prophet Mohammed had no reason to come up with something like the
Qur'an, and cause the entire society of Arabia to become his enemy.
Why would he write something going against almost all of the norms of
the society, and lose his family, relatives, friends, and other loved
ones? Furthermore, from where did Prophet Muhammad obtained the
scientific knowledge present in hundreds of verses of the Qur'an,
NONE of them contradicting established modern scientific facts?!
Dr. E. Marshall Johnson, Professor and Chairman of the Department of
Anatomy and Developmental Biology and Director of the Daniel Baugh
Institute at Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, USA, after
studying the verses of the Qur'an, proclaims:
"If I were to transport myself into that era (of 7th. century)
knowing what I do today and describing things, I could not describe
the things that were described (in the Qur'an)... I see no evidence
to refute the concept that this individual Muhammad had to be
developing this information from some place... so I see nothing in
conflict with the concept that divine intervention was involved."
Thus Prophet Muhammad, can't be the author of the Qur'an.
God (Allah) the Creator of the Universe Revealed the Qur'an?
This is the only explanation of the authorship of the sublime Qur'an.
As the Qur'an mentions:
"He (Muhammed) was taught by One mighty in Power (Allah)" (Qur'an,
"Do they not consider (ponder) on the Qur'an? If it had been from
anyone except Allah, they would surely have found in it much
discrepancy (contradictions)." (Qur'an, 4:82).
Qur'an is free from any type of errors. Still unsure or doubtful that
Qur'an is the word of Allah? Then contemplate on the ultimate
challenge from Allah Himself!:
"And if you are in doubt as to what We (Allah) have revealed to our
servant (Muhammed), then produce a Chapter like thereunto (like the
Qur'an's Chapters); And call your witnesses or helpers besides Allah,
If you are true."
"But if you cannot, and surely you cannot, Then fear the fire Whose
fuel is men and stones, Which is prepared for those who reject."
Thus the challenge is to produce a composition in Arabic one single
chapter as eloquent, full of guidance, articulate charismatic,
vibrant and a composition of the highest literary standard. This
challenge of the Qur'an has mystified scholars of all ages.
As author and scholar Mr. Roger Du Pasquier truly proclaims:
"To this day no-one has put forward a defensible explanation of how
an unlettered caravan merchant (Prophet Muhammed) of the early
seventh century might have been able, by his own devices, to produce
a text of such inimitable beauty, of such capacity to stir emotion,
and which contained knowledge and wisdom which stood so far above the
ideas current among mankind at that time". Roger Du Pasquier,
Unveiling Islam, (Cambridge: The Islamic Texts Society, 1992 p. 53.
Furthermore, Qur'an is the only scripture, which has been memorised
from cover to cover by millions in each generation, from the time of
its revelation till our time and preserved by Allah from any
alterations for continuing guidance for generations to come.
Sir William Muir, an Orientalist of the 19th century states:
"There is probably no other book in the world which has remained
twelve centuries (now fourteen) with so pure a text".
Introduction to William Muir, Life of Mohamet, vol. 1.
I finally request the readers to go to the local library or the
bookstore and obtain a copy of the Qur'an (or its English
translation) and examine for yourself the ultimate guidance and
inimitable miracle of Allah.
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